Exposure Assessment

TERA staff have authored numerous human exposure assessment reviews and studies, including residential exposures to various chemicals in consumer products, and have played a leading role internationally in research and collaborative efforts for exposure guidance and factors. For example, they have provided expert guidance to international companies on developing exposure and risk assessments for chemicals and polymers in consumer products and clothing. TERA staff have collaborated with Health Canada and the European Commission on guidance, scenarios, and exposure factors for assessing consumer exposures to chemicals and polymers in consumer products and articles (e.g., clothing, furniture, and toys). In addition, TERA staff have served as invited experts or reviewers for several U.S. EPA-sponsored efforts to develop or revise human exposure assessment guidance and resource documents and software. TERA is available to provide group and one-on-one training to help train assessors on the basics of chemical and consumer product exposure and risk assessment.



HAKKINEN and M.E. GINEVAN.   1994.  Personal Exposures to Toluene During Use of Nail Lacquers in Residences: Description of the Results of a Preliminary Study.   Journal Of Exposure Analysis And Environmental Epidemiology 4: 443-456.


DRIVER, J, J. CONNOR, JR., A. GUISEPPI-ELIE, P.J. HAKKINEN, D. MCCALLUM, T. MCKONE, J. SCHREIBER, J. SPENGLER, J. TELL, L. WALLACE, W. WOOD and S. YOUNGREN.  2001.  General Framework for Assessing Potential Human Exposures to Chemical, Biological, and Physical Agents in the Residential Environment.  In: Residential Exposure Assessment.  A Sourcebook.  S. Baker, J. Driver and D. McCallum.  (editors) . Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY. pp. 17-32.


HAKKINEN, P.J. (2002). Human Exposure to Substances Contained in Cleaning Products. In: Proceedings of the "Risks from Chemicals Released from Consumer Products/Articles" Workshop, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra, Italy (June 17 2002), pp.31-34.


HAKKINEN, P.J.  1999.   Building Characteristics.  In: Exposure to Contaminants in Drinking Water.  Estimating Uptake Through the Skin and by Inhalation.  S. Olin (editor). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (1999).


HAKKINEN, P.J. and EYSENBACH, E.J.  1995.  Exposure Evaluations Through Biomonitoring.  In: Screening and Testing Chemicals in Commerce.  Background Paper for Congress of the United States.  Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C.


HAKKINEN, P.J.  1993.  Cleaning and Laundry Products, Human Exposure Assessments.  In: Handbook of Hazardous Materials.  M. Corn (editor). Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 


HAKKINEN, P.J., KELLING, C.K., and CALLENDER.  1991.  Exposure Assessment of Consumer Products: Human Body Weights and Total Body Surface Areas to Use, and Sources of Data for Specific Products. Veterinary And Human Toxicology 33: 61-65.


WHITMYRE, G., W. DANG, J. DRIVER, M. EBERHART, L. FELL, P.J. HAKKINEN, M. JAYJOCK, P. KENNEDY and T. OSIMITZ.  2001.  Consumer Products and Related Sources.   In: Residential Exposure Assessment.  A Sourcebook.  S. Baker, J. Driver and D. McCallum.  (editors). Kluwer  Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY. pp. 201-244.


WHITMYRE, G.K., DRIVER, J.H., and HAKKINEN, P.J.  1997.  Assessment of Residential Exposures to Chemicals chapter, P In: Fundamentals of Risk Analysis and Risk Management.  V. Molak (editor). CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.