References for Half-Life of PFOA


Bartell SM, Calafat AM, Lyu C, Kato K, Ryan PB, Steenland K. 2010. Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia. Environ Health Perspect 118(2):222–228, PMID: 20123620,

Brede E, Wilhelm M, Göen T, Müller J, Rauchfuss K, Kraft M, et al. 2010. Two-year follow-up biomonitoring pilot study of residents’ and controls’ PFC plasma levels after PFOA reduction in public water system in Arnsberg, Germany. Int J Hyg Environ Health 213(3):217–223, PMID: 20488749,

Campbell, J., B. Allen, G. Olsen, C. Elcombe, E. Doyle, J. Evans, H. Clewell.  2016.  Evaluation of the Short-term Clearance of Perflourooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Clinical Trial Using a PBPK Model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Analysis.  Poster at the Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting.

De Silva, Amila O., James M. Armitage, Thomas A. Bruton, Clifton Dassuncao, Wendy Heiger-Bernays, Xindi C. Hu, Anna Kärrman, Barry Kelly, Carla Ng, Anna Robuck, Mei Sun, Thomas F. Webster, Elsie M. Sunderland.  2020.  PFAS Exposure Pathways for Humans and Wildlife: A Synthesis of Current Knowledge and Key Gaps in Understanding.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry:

Dourson, Michael and Bernard Gadagbui. 2021.  The Dilemma of Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) Human Half-life.  Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA).  Paper submitted to Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.  March 31.

Elcombe, C.R., Wolf, C.R., Westwood, A.L., 2013. US Patent Application Publication. Pub. No.: US 2013/0029928. Available at:

Emmett, E.A., F.S. Shofer, H. Zhang, D. Freeman, C. Desai, and L.M. Shaw.  2006. Community exposure to perfluorooctanoate: Relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources.  J. Occup Environ Med. 48(8): 759-770.

Gomis MI, Vestergren R, MacLeod M, Mueller JF, Cousins IT. 2017. Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling. Environment International 108:92–102.

Gomis MI, Vestergren R, Nilsson H, Cousins IT. 2016. Contribution of Direct and Indirect Exposure to Human Serum Concentrations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in an Occupationally Exposed Group of Ski Waxers. Environ Sci Technol. 50(13):7037-46.

Li Y, Fletcher T, Mucs D, Scott K, Lindh CH, Tallving P, et al. 2018. Half-lives of PFOS, PFHxS and PFOA after end of exposure to contaminated drinking water. Occup Environ Med 75(1):46–51, PMID: 29133598,

Mikkonen, Antti T.,  Jennifer Martin, Michael L. Dourson, Andrea Hinwood, Mark S. Johnson.  2020.  Suggestions for Improving the Characterisation of Risk from Exposures to Per and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS).  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2021;01:1-16.

Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, Froehlich JW, Seacat AM, Butenhoff JL, et al. 2007. Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect 115(9):1298–1305, PMID: 17805419,

Pizzurro DM., Seeley M, Kerper LE., Beck BD. 2019. Interspecies differences in perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) toxicokinetics and application to health-based criteria. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 106: 239-250.

Russell MH, Waterland RL, Wong F. 2015. Calculation of chemical elimination halflife from blood with an ongoing exposure source: the example of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Chemosphere 129:210–216, PMID: 25149361, 1016/j.chemosphere.2014.07.061.

Seals R, Bartell SM, Steenland K. 2011. Accumulation and clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in current and former residents of an exposed community. Environ Health Perspect. 119(1):119-24.

Schultes L, Vestergren R, Volkova K, Westberg E, Jacobson T, Benskin JP. 2018. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and fluorine mass balance in cosmetic products from the Swedish market: implications for environmental emissions and human exposure. Environ Sci-Process Impacts 20:1680-1690. DOI: 10.1039/c8em00368h.

Shin H, Vieira V, Ryan P, Detwiler R, Sanders B, Steenland K, Bartell S. 2011a. Environmental fate and transport modeling for perfluorooctanoic acid emitted from the Washington Works Facility in West Virginia. Environmental Science & Technology 45:1435-1442.

Shin HM, Vieira VM, Ryan PB, Steenland K, Bartell SM. 2011b. Retrospective exposure estimation and predicted versus observed serum perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations for participants in the C8 Health Project. Environ Health Perspect 119:1760–1765. .

Vestergren R and Cousins IT, 2009. Tracking the pathways of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates. Environ Sci Technol 43:5565-5575.

Vestergren, R., Berger, U., Glynn, A., Cousins, I.T., 2012. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids for the Swedish population in 1999, 2005 and 2010. Environ. Int. 49, 120–127. Cited in Gormis et al. (2017).

Worley RR, Moore SM, Tierney BC, Ye X, Calafat AM, Campbell S, et al. 2017. Perand polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum and urine samples from a residentially exposed community. Environ Int 106:135–143, PMID: 28645013,

Xu Y, Fletcher T, Pineda D, Lindh CH, Nilsson C, Glynn A, Vogs C, Norström K, Lilja K, Jakobsson K, Li Y. 2020. Serum Half-Lives for Short- and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Acids after Ceasing Exposure from Drinking Water Contaminated by Firefighting Foam. Environ Health Perspect. 28:7 CID: 077004

Yeung LWY., Robinson SJ, Koschorreck J, Mabury SA, 2013a. Part I. A Temporal Study of PFCAs and Their Precursors in Human Plasma from Two German Cities 1982–2009. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 3865–3874.

Yeung LWY, Robinson SJ, Koschorreck J, Mabury SA, 2013b. Part II. A Temporal Study of PFOS and Its Precursors in Human Plasma from Two German Cities in 1982–2009. Environmental science & technology 47, 3875–3882.

Zhang Y, Beesoon S, Zhu L, Martin JW. 2013. Biomonitoring of perfluoroalkyl acids in human urine and estimates of biological half-life. Environ Sci Technol 47(18):10619–10627, PMID: 23980546,



For Information Contact:                      

Dr. Michael Dourson