HSN: 514

NAME: ZINC

CAS-RN: 7440-66-6

DATE: 20180416

Risk Values - Summary Table

Summary Risk Table for:ZINC
Risk Value Parameter OrganizationATSDRHealth CanadaIARCIPCSIPRVITER PRNSF IntlRIVMTCEQU.S.EPA
Oral: Non-Cancer
green check
--
--
--
--
--
--
green check
--
green check
Oral: Cancer
green check
--
--
--
--
--
--
green check
--
green check
Inhalation: Non-Cancer
green check
--
--
--
--
--
--
green check
--
green check
Inhalation: Cancer
green check
--
--
--
--
--
--
green check
--
green check
green check = Chemical evaluated and ITER data online.


Noncancer Oral Risk Values Table:

ITER Noncancer Oral Risk Table for: ZINC
Risk Value Parameter OrganizationATSDRHealth CanadaIARCIPCSIPRVITER PRNSF IntlRIVMTCEQU.S.EPA
Risk Value Namechronic MRL
--
--
--
--
--
--
TDI
--
RfD
Risk Value*3E-1
--
--
--
--
--
--
5E-1
--
3E-1
Year2005
--
--
--
--
--
--
2000
--
2005
Base(Experimental)*NOAEL 0.83 (supplement)
--
--
--
--
--
--
LOAEL 0.83 (supplement)
--
LOAEL 0.91
Basis(Adjusted)*NA
--
--
--
--
--
--
1.0 (total dose)
--
NA
Uncertainty Factor3
--
--
--
--
--
--
2
--
3
Critical Organ or Effectblood
--
--
--
--
--
--
blood
--
blood
Specieshuman
--
--
--
--
--
--
human
--
human
StudyYadrick et al., 1989
--
--
--
--
--
--
Yadrick et al., 1989 (as cited in ATSDR, 1994)
--
multiple
Biomonitoring Blood
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
Biomonitoring Urine
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
View Specific:Click here
--
--
--
--
--
--
Click here
--
Click here
*In mg/kg body weight per day, unless otherwise specified.


Noncancer Oral Synopsis:

ATSDR, RIVM and U.S. EPA have evaluated the noncancer oral toxicity data for zinc and have all derived risk values based, in part, on the same study in humans. ATSDR and EPA derived the same chronic oral risk value of 0.3 mg/kg-day, but used different approaches to arrive at this value. ATSDR used the experimental LOAEL of 0.83 mg/kg-day for hematological effects from the Yadrick et al. (1989) study and designated it as a NOAEL because the observed effects were subclinical and were designated non-adverse. EPA based its reference dose (RfD) on the averaged LOAEL from four different studies that had similar methodologies and outcomes with regard to effects (Davis et al., 2000; Milne et al., 2001; Fischer et al., 1984; Yadrick et al., 1989). Both ATSDR and EPA used an uncertainty factor (UF) of 3. ATSDR noted that the MRL is based on soluble zinc salts; it is less likely that nonsoluble zinc compounds would have these effects at similar exposure levels.

RIVM derived a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.5 mg/kg-day based on an adjusted LOAEL of 1 mg/kg-day from the Yadrick et al. (1989) study, along with a UF of 2 to extrapolate from LOAEL to NOAEL. RIVM notes that its value meets the daily requirement of zinc of 0.3 mg/kg-day.

Noncancer Oral Specifics:

ATSDR

DCE:
See MRL Worksheet in Toxicological Profile, Appendix A, pp. A-3 through A-5. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60-a.pdf.

QEST:
See MRL Worksheet in Toxicological Profile, Appendix A, pp. A-3 through A-5. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60-a.pdf.

PEER:
The ATSDR Toxicological Profile has undergone internal agency reviews and has been externally reviewed by a peer review panel.

BIB:
Yadrick, M.K., Kenney, M.A., Winterfelt, E.A., 1989. Iron, copper, and zinc status: Response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49:145-150.

MOREI:
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2005. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. August. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60.html.

For the list of ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs), see http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls/index.html.

Noncancer Oral Specifics:

RIVM

PEER:
The RIVM toxicological profile has undergone internal reviews.

BIB:
ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological profile for zinc (update). ATSDR report no. TP-93/15, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, US Public Health Service, Atlanta (Georgia), USA.

Yadrick, M.K., Kenney, M.A., Winterfelt, E.A., 1989. Iron, copper, and zinc status: Response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49:145-150. As cited in: ATSDR, 1994.

MOREI:
Baars AJ et al. 2001. Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels. RIVM report no. 711701025, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, March 2001, p 82-85. Available at http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/711701025.pdf or at http://www.rivm.nl/en/ (click on Search, type "711701025", then click on document).

Previous source document:

Vermeire, TG, ME van Apeldoorn, JC de Fouw and PJCM Janssen. "Voorstel voor de humaan-toxicologische onderbouwing van C-(toetsings)warden" (In Dutch). RIVM report no. 725201005. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, February 1991, p 79-80. Report can be ordered from RIVM (see http://www.rivm.nl/en/ click on Publications, then click on "How to order" for instructions).

Noncancer Oral Specifics:

U.S.EPA

BIB:
Davis, CD; Milne, DB; Nielsen, FH. 2000. Changes in dietary zinc and copper affect zinc-status indicators of postmenopausal women, notably, extracellular superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 71:781-788.

Fischer, PW; Giroux, A; L'Abbe, MR. 1984. Effect of zinc supplementation on copper status in adult man. Am J Clin Nutr 40:743-746.

Milne, DB; Davis, CD; Nielsen, FH. 2001. Low dietary zinc alters indices of copper function and status in postmenopausal women. Nutrition 17:701-708.

Yadrick, MK; Kenney, MA; Winterfeldt, EA. 1989. Iron, copper, and zinc status: response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females. Am J Clin Nutr 49:145-150.

MOREI:
Details on this chemical's assessment are available on U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

U.S. EPA, 2005. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Online. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0426.htm.


Cancer Oral Risk Values Table:

ITER Cancer Oral Risk Table for: ZINC
Risk Value Parameter OrganizationATSDRHealth CanadaIARCIPCSIPRVITER PRNSF IntlRIVMTCEQU.S.EPA
Risk Value NameNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
CR(oral)
--
RSD
Risk Value*NA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Year2005
--
--
--
--
--
--
2000
--
2005
ClassificationNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
see below
Target OrganNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
SpeciesNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
StudyNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Biomonitoring Blood
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
Biomonitoring Urine
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
View Specific:Click here
--
--
--
--
--
--
Click here
--
Click here
*In mg/kg body weight per day, unless otherwise specified.


Cancer Oral Synopsis:

ATSDR, RIVM, and U.S. EPA have evaluated the carcinogenicity data for zinc. EPA determined that under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005), there is inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential of zinc, because studies of humans occupationally-exposed to zinc are inadequate or inconclusive, adequate animal bioassays of the possible carcinogenicity of zinc are not available, and results of genotoxic tests of zinc have been equivocal. RIVM determined that the available dataset does not indicate any genotoxic action of zinc and therefore, developed a risk value based on noncancer endpoints. ATSDR has published a Toxicological Profile for Zinc. Although ATSDR discusses the carcinogenicity data in its Toxicological Profiles, it does not currently assess cancer potency or perform cancer risk assessments.

Cancer Oral Specifics:

ATSDR

PEER:
The ATSDR Toxicological Profile has undergone internal agency reviews and has been externally reviewed by a peer review panel.

MOREI:
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2005. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. August. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60.html.

For the list of ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs), see http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls/index.html.

Cancer Oral Specifics:

RIVM

PEER:
The RIVM toxicological profile has undergone internal reviews.

MOREI:
Baars AJ et al. 2001. Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels. RIVM report no. 711701025, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, March 2001, p 82-85. Available at http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/711701025.pdf or at http://www.rivm.nl/en/ (click on Search, type "711701025", then click on document).

Previous source document:

Vermeire, TG, ME van Apeldoorn, JC de Fouw and PJCM Janssen. "Voorstel voor de humaan-toxicologische onderbouwing van C-(toetsings)warden" (In Dutch). RIVM report no. 725201005. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, February 1991, p 79-80. Report can be ordered from RIVM (see http://www.rivm.nl/en/ click on Publications, then click on "How to order" for instructions).

Cancer Oral Specifics:

U.S.EPA

BIB:
U.S. EPA. 2005. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, DC. EPA/630/P-03/001B, NCEA-F-0644b. Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/backgr-d.htm.

MOREI:
Details on this chemical's assessment are available on U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

U.S. EPA, 2005. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Online. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0426.htm.


Noncancer Inhalation Risk Values Table:

ITER Noncancer Inhalation Risk Table for: ZINC
Risk Value Parameter OrganizationATSDRHealth CanadaIARCIPCSIPRVITER PRNSF IntlRIVMTCEQU.S.EPA
Risk Value Namechronic MRL
--
--
--
--
--
--
TCA
--
RfC
Risk Value*NA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Year2005
--
--
--
--
--
--
2000
--
2005
Base(Experimental)*NA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Basis(Adjusted)*NA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Uncertainty FactorNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Critical Organ or EffectNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
SpeciesNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
StudyNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Biomonitoring Blood
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
Biomonitoring Urine
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
View Specific:Click here
--
--
--
--
--
--
Click here
--
Click here
*In mg/kg body weight per day, unless otherwise specified.


Noncancer Inhalation Synopsis:

ATSDR, RIVM, and U.S. EPA have evaluated the noncancer inhalation toxicity data for zinc. ATSDR did not derive a chronic minimal risk level (MRL) for inhalation exposure. Only one chronic-duration study in humans was located, but the exposure levels were not reported. Therefore, the study could not be used as the basis for the derivation of a chronic-duration inhalation MRL. RIVM did not derive a tolerable concentration in air (TCA) because data on appropriate NOAECs after inhalation exposure are not available. EPA determined that available data are not suitable for the derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) for zinc. A number of case reports of metal fume fever have been reported in humans; however, exposure levels are not known. The data in animals are limited to a few studies of acute duration; no subchronic or chronic inhalation studies of zinc are available at this time.

Noncancer Inhalation Specifics:

ATSDR

PEER:
The ATSDR Toxicological Profile has undergone internal agency reviews and has been externally reviewed by a peer review panel.

MOREI:
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2005. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. August. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60.html.

For the list of ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs), see http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls/index.html.

Noncancer Inhalation Specifics:

RIVM

PEER:
The RIVM toxicological profile has undergone internal reviews.

MOREI:
Baars AJ et al. 2001. Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels. RIVM report no. 711701025, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, March 2001, p 82-85. Available at http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/711701025.pdf or at http://www.rivm.nl/en/ (click on Search, type "711701025", then click on document).

Previous source document:

Vermeire, TG, ME van Apeldoorn, JC de Fouw and PJCM Janssen. "Voorstel voor de humaan-toxicologische onderbouwing van C-(toetsings)warden" (In Dutch). RIVM report no. 725201005. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, February 1991, p 79-80. Report can be ordered from RIVM (see http://www.rivm.nl/en/ click on Publications, then click on "How to order" for instructions).

Noncancer Inhalation Specifics:

U.S.EPA

MOREI:
Details on this chemical's assessment are available on U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

U.S. EPA, 2005. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Online. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0426.htm.


Cancer Inhalation Risk Values Table:

ITER Cancer Inhalation Risk Table for: ZINC
Risk Value Parameter OrganizationATSDRHealth CanadaIARCIPCSIPRVITER PRNSF IntlRIVMTCEQU.S.EPA
Risk Value NameNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
CR(inhal)
--
RSC
Risk Value*NA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Year2005
--
--
--
--
--
--
2000
--
2005
ClassificationNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
see below
Target OrganNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
SpeciesNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
StudyNA
--
--
--
--
--
--
NA
--
NA
Biomonitoring Blood
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
Biomonitoring Urine
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
View Specific:Click here
--
--
--
--
--
--
Click here
--
Click here
*In mg/kg body weight per day, unless otherwise specified.


Cancer Inhalation Synopsis:

ATSDR, RIVM, and U.S. EPA have evaluated the carcinogenicity data for zinc. EPA determined that under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005), there is inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential of zinc, because studies of humans occupationally-exposed to zinc are inadequate or inconclusive, adequate animal bioassays of the possible carcinogenicity of zinc are not available, and results of genotoxic tests of zinc have been equivocal. RIVM determined that the available dataset does not indicate any genotoxic action of zinc. ATSDR has published a Toxicological Profile for Zinc. Although ATSDR discusses the carcinogenicity data in its Toxicological Profiles, it does not currently assess cancer potency or perform cancer risk assessments.

Cancer Inhalation Specifics:

ATSDR

PEER:
The ATSDR Toxicological Profile has undergone internal agency reviews and has been externally reviewed by a peer review panel.

MOREI:
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2005. Toxicological Profile for Zinc. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. August. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp60.html.

For the list of ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs), see http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls/index.html.

Cancer Inhalation Specifics:

RIVM

PEER:
The RIVM toxicological profile has undergone internal reviews.

MOREI:
Baars AJ et al. 2001. Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels. RIVM report no. 711701025, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, March 2001, p 82-85. Available at http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/711701025.pdf or at http://www.rivm.nl/en/ (click on Search, type "711701025", then click on document).

Previous source document:

Vermeire, TG, ME van Apeldoorn, JC de Fouw and PJCM Janssen. "Voorstel voor de humaan-toxicologische onderbouwing van C-(toetsings)warden" (In Dutch). RIVM report no. 725201005. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, February 1991, p 79-80. Report can be ordered from RIVM (see http://www.rivm.nl/en/ click on Publications, then click on "How to order" for instructions).

Cancer Inhalation Specifics:

U.S.EPA

BIB:
U.S. EPA. 2005. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Risk Assessment Forum, Washington, DC. EPA/630/P-03/001B, NCEA-F-0644b. Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/backgr-d.htm.

MOREI:
Details on this chemical's assessment are available on U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).

U.S. EPA, 2005. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Online. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0426.htm.

NO Revision History: