TERA Staff Publications

Publications are listed in alphabetical order by first author, with the exception of TERA reports, which are at the bottom of this list. Click the appropriate letter to go to the desired section of the list.



Abernathy, CO and ML Dourson. (1994) Derivation of the inorganic arsenic Reference Dose. In: Arsenic Exposure and Health. W.R. Chappell, C.O. Abernathy and C.R. Cothern (editors). Science and Technology Letters, Northwood, England.

Albertini, RJ and Sweeney, LM. (2007) Propylene oxide: genotoxicity profile of a rodent nasal carcinogen. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37:489-520.


Andersen, M.E., R.J. Preston, A. Maier, A. Willis, and J. Patterson.  Dose-Response Approaches for Nuclear Receptor-Mediated Modes of Action for Liver Carcinogenicity: Results of a Workshop.  Critical Reviews in Toxicology.  Posted online on October 1, 2013. (doi:10.3109/10408444.2013.835785)


Araya, M; McGoldrick, MC; Klevay, L; Strain, JJ; Robson, P; Nielsen, F; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Johnson, L; Poirier, KA. (2001) Determination of an Acute No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) for Copper in Water.  2001. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol.  34:137-145.

Araya, M; Chen, B, Klevay, L; Strain, J; Johnson, L; Robson, P; Shi, W; Neilsen, F; Zhu, H; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Haber, L. (2003) Confirmation of an Acute No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) and Low-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL) for Copper in Bottled Drinking Water in a Multi-site International Study. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38(3):389-99.




Barnes, DG and Dourson, M. (1988) Reference dose (RfD): Description and use in health risk assessment. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 8: 471-486. Russian edition.


Beck, B and Dourson, M. (1993) How toxicity data are used in the process of hazard identification and dose-response assessment. In: Basic Risk Assessment: Current Developments. Society of Toxicology Continuing Education Course #6, 32nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 14.


Beck, BD; Conolly, RB; Dourson, ML; Guth, D; Hattis, D; Kimmel, C; Lewis, CJ. (1993) Improvements in quantitative noncancer risk assessment. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 20: 1-14.


Becker, R.A., Dellarco, V., Seed, J., Kronenberg, J.M., Meek, B., Foreman, J., Palermo, C., Kirman, C., Linkov, I., Schoeny, R., Dourson, M., Pottenger, L.H., Manibusan, M.K. 2017. Quantitative weight of evidence to assess confidence in potential modes of action. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 86:205–20.


Beck, N.B., Becker, R.A., Erraguntla, N., Farland, W.H., Grant, R.L., Gray, G., Kirman, C., LaKind, J.S., Lewis, R.J., Nance, P., Pottenger, L.H., Santos, S.L., Shirley, S., Simon, T., Dourson, M.L. 2016. Approaches for describing and communicating overall uncertainty in toxicity characterizations: US Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) as a case study. Environ Int. 89–90: 110–28.


Boyes, WK; Dourson, ML; Patterson, J; Tilson, HA; Sette, WF; Macphail, RC; Li, AA; O’Donoghue, LL. (1997) Workshop Overview: EPA’s Neurotoxicity Risk Assessment Guidelines. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 40 (2):175-184.




Cope, R.B., Kacew, S., Dourson, M. 2015. A reproductive, developmental and neurobehavioral study following oral exposure of tetrabromobisphenol A on Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicology. 329:49–59.


Cain, WS; Dourson, ML; Kohrman-Vincent, MJ; Allen, BC. (2010) Human Chemosensory Perception of Methyl Isothiocyanate: Odor and Chemesthesis. Reg. Toxicol. and Pharmacol. 58(2):173-180.


Chambers A, Krewski D, Birkett N, Plunkett L, Hertzberg R, Danzeisen R, Aggett PJ, Starr TB, Baker S, Dourson M, Jones P, Keen CL, Meek B, Schoeny R, Slob W.  2010.  An exposure-response curve for copper excess and deficiency.  J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2010 Oct;13(7-8): 546-78. (Linked paper is a pre-print)


Charnley, G and Patterson, J. (2003) Review of Procedures for Protecting Human Subjects in Recent Clinical Studies of Pesticides. Reg. Toxicol. and Pharmacol.  38: 210-223.


Charnley, G and Patterson, J. (2003) Use of Human Subjects Data for Regulating Chemical Exposure. Environmental Law Reporter. 



Dankovic, D.A., Naumann, B.D., Maier, A., Dourson, M.L., Levy, L.S. 2015. The scientific basis of uncertainty factors used in setting occupational exposure limits. J Occup Environ Hyg. 12(Supp1):S55–68.


Dolan, D; Naumann, B ; Sargent, E ; Maier, A; Dourson, M. (2005) Application of the threshold of toxicological concern concept to pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 43: 1-9.


Dourson, M.L.,. 2018.  Let the IRIS Bloom: Regrowing the integrated risk information system (IRIS) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 97: A4-A5 Click Here.


Dourson, M.L., Higginbotham, J., Crum, J., Burleigh-Flayer, H., Nance, P., Forsberg, N.D., Lafranconi, M., Reichard, J. 2017. Update: Mode of action (MOA) for liver tumors induced by oral exposure to 1, 4-dioxane. Regul Toxicol Pharnacol. 88:45–55.


Dourson, M.L., York, R.G. 2016. Advances in assessing ingredient safety. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 79:S112–8.


Dourson, M.L., Gadagbui, B.K., Thompson, R.B., Pfau, E.J., Lowe, J. 2016. Managing risks of noncancer health effects at hazardous waste sites: A case study using the Reference Concentration (RfC) of trichloroethylene (TCE). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 80:125–33.


Dourson, M.L., Chinkin, L.R., MacIntosh, D.L., Finn, J.A., Brown, K.W., Reid, S.B., Martinez, J.M. 2016. A case study of potential human health impacts from petroleum coke transfer facilities. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 66(11):1061–76.


Dourson, M; Reichard, J; Nance, P; Burleigh-Flayer, H; Parker, A; Vincent, M; McConnell, EE; (2014). Mode of Action Analysis for Liver Tumors from Oral 1,4-Dioxane Exposures and Evidence-Based Dose Response Assessment. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (in press).


Dourson, M., Becker, R.A., Haber, L.T., Pottenger, L.H., Bredfeldt, T., and Fenner-Crisp, P. 2013. Advancing Human Health Risk Assessment: Integrating Recent Advisory Committee Recommendations. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2013; 43(6): 467–492.


Dourson, ML; Kohrman-Vincent, MJ; Allen, BC. (2010) Dose response assessment for effects of acute exposure to methyl isothiocyanate (MITC). Reg. Toxicol and Pharmacol. 58(2):181-188.


Dourson, ML. (2010) U-shaped dose-response curves: implications for risk characterization of essential elements and other chemicals. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73(2):181-6.


Dourson, ML; Hertzberg, R; Allen, B; Haber, L; Parker, A; Kroner, O; Maier, A; Kohrman, M. (2008) Evidence-Based Dose Response Assessment for Thyroid Tumorigenesis from Acrylamide. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 52 (2008) 264­289.


Dourson, ML and Parker, A. (2007) Past and Future Use of Default Assumptions and Uncertainty Factors: Default Assumptions, Misunderstandings, and New Concepts. Hum Ecol Risk Assess. 13(1):82-88.


Dourson, ML and Drinan, D. (2006) Sensitive Populations and Risk Assessment. In: Toxicokinetics in Risk Assessment. Taylor and Francis Publishers. J.C. Lipscomb and E.V. Ohanian, Eds. Informa health care, New York. Pp. 251-210.


Dourson, ML; Zhao, Q; Hack, CE; Parker, AL. (2005) Trichloroethylene Dose Response Assessment: Additional Issues Relevant for a Scientifically Credible Approach. White Paper.


Dourson, ML and Patterson, J. (2003) A 20-Year Perspective on the Development of Non-Cancer Risk Assessment Methods. Special issue of the Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment commemorating 20th anniversary of the NRC’s Red Book on risk assessment and risk management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9: 1239-1252.


Dourson et al. (2002) Comparative Dietary Risk:  Balance the Risk and Benefits of Fish Consumption. Comments on Toxicology. 8:335-536. See the TERA report in it entirety below under TERA Reports


Dourson, ML; Charnley, G; Scheuplein, R. (2002) Differential Sensitivity of Children and Adults to Chemical Toxicity:  II.  Risk and Regulation. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 35:448-467.


Dourson, ML and Younes, M. (2002) Evolution in noncancer risk assessment - current practice, controversies, and challenges. Comments on Toxicology. 7(5-6):399-414.


Dourson, ML; Andersen, M; Erdreich, L; MacGregor, J. (2001) Using human data to protect the public’s health. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol., Vol. 33, No. 2, Apr 2001, pp. 234-256.


Dourson, ML and Erdreich, L. (2001) Using Human Data to Develop Risk Values. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. Vol. 7, No. 6.


Dourson, ML; Wullenweber, AE; Poirier, KA. (2001) Uncertainties in the Reference Dose for Methylmercury, NeuroToxicology 22 (5) (2001) pp. 677-689.


Dourson, ML; Maier, A; Meek, B; Renwick, A; Ohanian, E; Poirier, K. (1998) Re-evaluation of toxicokinetics for data-derived uncertainty factors. Biol. Trace Element Res. 66: 453-463.


Dourson, ML and Felter, SP. (1997) Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE. Risk Anal., 25: 43-57.


Dourson, ML; Teuschler, LK; Durkin, PR; Stiteler, WM. (1997) Categorical regression of toxicity data: a case study using aldicarb. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 25: 121-129.


Dourson, ML. (1996) Editorial: Uncertainty Factors in noncancer Risk Assessment. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 24. Article No. 0115. p. 107.


Dourson, ML; Felter, SP; Robinson, D. (1996) Evolution of science-based uncertainty factors in noncancer risk assessment. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol., 24: 108-120.


Dourson, ML. (1995) How Regulatory Agencies View Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures. BELLE Newsletter. 4(1):7.


Dourson, ML and Lu, FC. (1995) Safety/Risk assessment of chemicals compared for different expert groups. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 8:1-13.


Dourson, ML. (1994) Methods for establishing oral reference doses (RfDs). In: Risk Assessment of Essential Elements, W. Mertz, C.O. Abernathy and S.S. Olin, Ed. ILSI Press, Washington, DC. pp. 51-61.


Dourson, ML. (1994) The chromium reference doses (RfDs). In: Risk Assessment of Essential Elements, W. Mertz, C.O. Abernathy and S.S. Olin, Ed. ILSI Press, Washington, D.C.


Dourson, ML. (1993) Reference dose of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 19 (Suppl. 1): 115-118.


Dourson, ML. (1993) Modifying uncertainty factors for noncancer endpoints. In: Advanced Topics in Risk Assessment. Society of Toxicology Continuing Education Course #10. 32nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 14.


Dourson, ML; Knauf, L; Swartout, J. (1992) On reference dose (RfD) and its underlying toxicity database. Tox. Ind. Health 8(3): 171-189.


Dourson, ML. (1991) Overview of EPA's quantitative noncancer guidelines. Air and Waste Management Association. In: 84th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Vancouver, British Columbia, June 16-21. pp 2-7.


Dourson, ML and DeRosa, CT. (1991) The use of uncertainty factors in establishing safe levels of exposure. In: Statistics in Toxicology, D. Krewski and C. Franklin, Ed. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, NY.


Dourson, ML; Stern, B; Griffin, S; Bailey, K. (1991) Impact of risk-related concerns on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Programs. In: Nitrate Contamination: Exposure, Consequence and Control, I. Bogardi and R.O. Kuzella, Ed. NATO ASI Series G: Ecological Sciences,Vol. 30.


Dourson, ML and Clark, JM. (1990) Fish consumption advisories: Toward a unified, scientifically credible approach. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 12: 165-172.


Dourson, ML and Jordan, WL. (1989) How "safe" is the ground water Americans drink? Ground Water Monitoring Report Fall: 73-74.


Dourson, ML; Hertzberg, RC; Stara, JF. (1986) Letters to the Editor. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 6: 182-184.


Dourson, ML. (1986) New approaches in the derivation of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Comments Toxicol. 1: 35-48.


Dourson, ML; Hertzberg, R; Hartung, R; Blackburn, K. (1985) Novel methods for the estimation of acceptable daily intake. Tox. Ind. Health 1: 23-33.


Dourson, ML. (1984) Toxicity-based methodology, thresholds and possible approaches, and uncertainty factors. In: Approaches to Risk Assessment for Multiple Chemical Exposures. EPA 600/9-84-008. p. 2-42.


Dourson, ML. (1984) Health risk assessment for less-than-lifetime chemical exposure - toxicants and carcinogens. In: Selected Approaches to Risk Assessment for Multiple Chemical Exposures: Progress Report on Guideline Development at ECAO-Cin, J.F. Stara and L.S. Erdreich, Ed. U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, OH EPA 600/9-84/014a. p. 9-15.


Dourson, ML and Stara, J. (1983) Regulatory history and experimental support of uncertainty (safety) factors. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 3: 224-238.


Dourson, ML and Baxter, CS. (1981) Reduced prevalence and growth rate of urethane induced lung adenomas in aging adult strain A mice. Toxicology 20: 165-172.


Dourson, ML and O'Flaherty, EJ. (1982) Relationship of lung adenoma prevalence and growth rate to acute urethane dose and target cell number. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 69(4):851-857.




Edler, L; Poirier, K; Dourson, M; Kleiner, J; Mileson, B; Nordmann, H; Renwick, A; Slob, W; Walton, K; Wurtzen, G. (2002) Mathematical Modelling and Quantitative Methods. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 40: 283-326.


Effio, DG; Kroner, O; Maier, A; Hayes, W; Willis, A; Strawson J. (2013) A Look at State-Level Risk Assessment in the United States: Making Decisions in the Absence of Federal Risk Values. Risk Analysis, 33:1, 54-67.


Elves, RG; Sweeney, LM; Tomljanovic, C. (1997) Risk Based Tiered Approach (RBTA) for pollution prevention. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 20(4):401-409.



Farland, W and Dourson, ML. (1992) Noncancer health endpoints: Approaches to quantitative risk assessment. In: Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment, R. Cothern, Ed. Lewis Publishers Inc., Boca Raton, LA. December.


Fasano, WJ; Sweeney, LM; Mawn, MP; Nabb, DL; Szostek, B; Buck, RC; Gargas, ML. (2009)  Kinetics of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol and its metabolites, and liver glutathione status following daily oral dosing for 45 days in male and female rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions 180:281-295.


Felter, SP and Dollarhide, JS. (1997) Acrylonitrile: A Reevaluation of the Database to Support an Inhala tion Cancer Risk Assessment. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 26: 281-287.


Felter, SP and Dollarhide, JS. (1997) Acrylonitrile: A Reevaluation of the Database to Support an Inhalation Cancer Risk Assessment. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 26: 281-287.


Felter, SP and Dourson, M. (1998) The Inexact Science of Risk Assessment (and Implications for Risk Management. Human and Ecol. Risk Assessment: Vol. 4(2): 245-251.


Felter, SP and Dourson, ML. (1997) Hexavalent chromium contaminated soils: Options for risk assessment and risk management. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol. 25: 43-59.


Felter, SP; Dourson, M; Patterson, J. (1997) Chapter 2: Assessing Risks to Human Health from Chemicals in the Environment. In: Handbook of Environmental Risk Assessment & Management. P. Calow, Ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford. 9-23.


Fields, C; Dourson, ML; Borak, J. (2005) Iodine-deficient vegetarians: A hypothetical perchlorate-susceptible population?  Reg. Tox. Pharmacol.  June, 42(1): 37-46.


Flaherty, EJ and Dourson, ML. (1983) A reply to the letter to the Editor "Cells of Origin of Lung Tumors in Mice". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70(6): 991-992.




Gadagbui, B; Maier, M; Dourson, M; Parker, A; Willis, A; Christopher, JP; Hicks, L; Ramasany, S; Roberts, SM. (2010) Derived Reference Doses (RfDs) for the Environmental Degradates of the Herbicides Alachlor and Acetochlor:  Results of an Independent Expert Panel Deliberation Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 57:220-234.


Gadagbui, BK; Haber, LT; Dourson, ML. (2006) Chemical Risk Assessment as Used in Setting Regulatory Levels or Standards. Chap. 3.3.1 in Transforming Sustainability Strategy into Action: The Chemical Industry, edited by Beth Beloff, Marianne Lines, and Dicksen Tanzil. Hoboken , NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.


Gadagbui B; Patterson J; Rak A;, Kutzman RS; Reddy G; and Johnson MS.  2012. Development of a relative source contribution factor for drinking water criteria: The case of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).  Human and Ecol. Risk Assess. 18:2, 338-354.


Gargas, ML; Tyler, TR; Sweeney, LM; Corley, RA; Weitz, KK; Mast, TJ; Paustenbach, DJ; Hays, SM. (2000) A toxicokinetic study of inhaled ethylene glycol ethyl ether acetate and validation of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for rat and human. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 165:63-73.


Gargas, ML; Tyler, TR; Sweeney, LM; Corley, RA; Weitz, KK; Mast, TJ; Paustenbach, DJ; Hays, SM. (2000) A toxicokinetic study of inhaled ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-ME) and validation of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for the pregnant rat and human.  Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 165:53-62.


Gargas, ML; Collins, B; Fennell, TR; Gaudette, NF Jr; Sweeney, LM. (2008) Disposition of styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer in female rats: single dose intravenous and gavage studies.  Toxicol. Lett. 178:1-8.


Gargas, ML; Kirman, CR; Sweeney, LM; Tardiff, RG. (2009) Acrylamide: consideration of species differences and nonlinear processes in estimating risk and safety for human ingestion. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47:760-8.


Gargas, ML; Sweeney, LM; Himmelstein, MW; Pottenger, LH; Bus, JS; Holder, JW. (2008)  Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of chloroethane disposition in mice, rats and women. Toxicol. Sci. 104:54-66. Available online here.


Gentry, PR; Haber, LT; McDonald, TB; Zhao, Q; Covington, T; Nance, P; Clewell III, HJ; Lipscomb, JC; Barton, HA. (2004) Data for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in neonatal animals: Physiological parameters in mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Children's Health. 2(3-4): 363-412.


Gentry, PR; Hack, CE; Haber, L; Maier, A; Clewell, HJ III. (2002) An Approach for the Quantitative Consideration of Genetic Polymorphism Data in Chemical Risk Assessment: Examples with Warfarin and Parathion. Toxicol Sci. Nov, 70(1):120-39. (Please note: Haber et al. 2002 describes phase 1 of this project.)


Greenberg, M., Goldstein, B.D., Anderson, E., Dourson, M., Landis, W., North, D.W. 2015. Whither Risk Assessment: New Challenges and Opportunities a Third of a Century After the Red Book. Risk Anal. 35(11), 1959–68.




Haber, LT; Maier, MA; Hack, CE; Shulte, P; Fowler, B; Lotz, WG; Savage, RE Jr. (2010) A Method for Biomarker Validation and Biomarker-Dose Response: A Case Study with a Bayesian Network Model for Benzene.


Haber, LT; Maier, A; Kroner, OL; Kohrman, MJ. (2009) Assessment of Human Relevance and Mode of Action for Tunica Vaginalis Mesotheliomas Resulting from Oral Exposure to Acrylamide.  Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 53(2): 134-149. Available online here.


Haber, LT; Nance, P; Maier, A; Price, P; Olajos, E; Bickford, L; McConnell, M; Klauenberg, BJ. (2007) Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices. Storming Media.


Haber, LT. (2006) Overview of Approach to Noncancer Risk Assessment. In:  Toxicokinetics in Risk Assessment, Taylor and Francis publishers, J.C. Lipscomb and E.V. Ohanian, eds. Informa health care, New York. pp. 1-26.


Haber, L; Maier, A; Dourson, M. (2006) Using Best Science in Cancer Risk Assessment, Editorial. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 12(1):1-8.


Haber, LT Patterson, J. (2005) Report of an Independent Peer Review of an Acrylonitrile Risk Assessment. Human & Exp. Tox. 24(10): 487-527.


Haber, LT and Maier, A. (2002) Scientific Criteria used for the Development of Occupational Exposure Limits for Metals and Other Mining-Related Chemicals. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol.  36(3): 262-279.


Haber, LT; Maier, A; Gentry, PR; Clewell, HJ; Dourson, ML. (2002) Genetic Polymorphisms in assessing interindividual variability in delivered dose. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 35, 177-197.  (Please note: Gentry et al. 2002 is the companion follow-up paper)


Haber, LT; Dollarhide, JS; Maier, A; Dourson, ML. (2001) Noncancer Risk Assessment: Principles and Practice in Environmental and Occupational Settings. In: Patty’s Toxicology, Fifth edition. Bingham, E., Cohrssen, and C.H. Powell, ed. Wiley and Sons, Inc.


Haber, LT; Maier, A; Zhao, Q; Dollarhide, JS; Savage, RE; Dourson, ML. (2001) Applications of Mechanistic Data in Risk Assessment -- The Past, Present, and Future.  Toxicological Sciences. 61(1): 32-39. Available online here.


Haber, L; Strickland, JA; Guth, DJ. (2001) Categorical Regression Analysis of Toxicity Data. Comments on Toxicology. 7(5-6):437-452.


Haber, LT; Diamond, GL; Zhao, Q; Erdreich, L; Dourson, ML. (2000) Hazard identification and dose-response of ingested nickel soluble salts. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol, 31: 231-241.


Haber, LT; Erdreich, L; Diamond, GL; Maier, AM; Ratney, R; Zhao, Q; Dourson, ML. (2000) Hazard identification and dose-response of inhaled nickel soluble salts. Reg. Tox. Pharmacol, 31:  210-230.


Haber, LT; Allen, B; Kimmel, C. (1998) Noncancer risk assessment for nickel compounds: issues associated with dose-response modeling of inhalation and oral exposures. Toxicological Sciences. 43: 213-229. Available online here.


Hack, CE. (2006) Bayesian analysis of physiologically based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic models. Toxicology 221(2-3):241-248.


Hack, CE; Haber, LT; Maier, A; Schulte, P; Fowler, B; Lotz, WG; Savage, RE. (2010) A Bayesian Network Model for Biomarker-Based Dose Response. Risk Anal. 30(7): 1037-51.


Hack, CE; Chiu, WA; Zhao, Q; Clewell, HJ. (2006) Bayesian Population Analysis of a Harmonized Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Model of Trichloroethylene and its Metabolites.  Reg. Tox. Pharm. 46:63-83.


Hasegawa, R; Mutsuko, HK; Dourson, ML; Parker, A; Sweeney, LM; Nishikawa, A; Yoshida, M; Ono, A; Hirose, A. (2010) Proposal of new uncertainty factor application to derive tolerable daily intake. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 58(2): 237-242.


Hasegawa, R; Hirata-Koizumi, M; Dourson, M; Parker, A; Hirose, A; Nakai, S; Kamata, E; Ema, M. (2007) Pediatric susceptibility to 18 industrial chemicals: A comparative analysis of newborn with young animals. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 47(3):296-307.  Available online here.


Hasegawa R; Hirata-Koizumi M; Dourson ML; Parker A; Ono A;, and Hirose A.  (2013). Safety assessment of boron by application of new uncertainty factors and their subdivision. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 65:1, 108-114. DOI information: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.10.013.


Hays, SM; Aylward, LL; LaKind, JS; Bartels, MJ; Barton, HA; Boogaard, PJ; Brunk, C; DiZio, S; Dourson, M; Goldstein, DA; Lipscomb, J; Kilpatrick, ME; Krewski, D; Krishnan, K; Nordberg, M; Okino, M; Tan, YM; Viau, C; Yager, JW. (2008) Guidelines for the derivation of Biomonitoring Equivalents: report from the Biomonitoring Equivalents Expert Workshop. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 51(3 Suppl):S4-15.


Hertzberg, RC and Dourson, ML. (1993) Using categorical regression instead of a NOAEL to characterize a toxicologist's judgment in noncancer risk assessment. In: Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: Case Studies, Mechanisms and Novel Approaches, R.S.H. Yang, Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.


Hertzberg, RC and Patterson, J. (1987) Approaches to the Quantitative Estimation of Health Risk from Exposure to Chemical Mixtures. In: Health & Environmental Research on Complex Organic Mixtures, (R.H. Gray, E.K. Chess, P.J. Mellinger, R.G. Riley and D.L. Springer, Eds.) Twenty-Fourth Handford Life Sciences Symposium, October 20-24, 1985. p. 747-757.


Hertzberg RC; Pan y; Li R; Haber LT; Lyles RH; Herr DW; Moser VC; and Simmons JE.  A four step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition. Toxicology.  Epub ahead of print. DOI information:pii: S0300-483X(12)00368-X.


Hissink, AM; Kulig, BM; Kruse, J; Freidig, AP; Verwei, M; Muijser, H; Lammers, JHCM; McKee, RH; Owen, DE; Sweeney, LM; Salmon, F. (2009) PBPK modeling of cyclohexane as a tool for integrating animal and human test data. Int. J. Toxicol. 28(6): 498-509.



Jarabek, AM; Menache, MG; Overton Jr, JH; Dourson, ML; Miller, FJ. (1989) Inhalation reference dose (RfD): An application of interspecies dosimetry modeling for risk assessment of insoluble particles. Health Phys. 57(Suppl. 1): 177-183.


Jarabek, AM; Menache, MG; Overton Jr, JH; Dourson, ML; Miller, FJ. (1990) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RfD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics. Tox. Ind. Health 6(5): 279-301.

Juberg, DR; Borghoff, SJ; Becker, RA; Casey, W; Hartung, T; Holsapple, MP; Marty, SM; Mihaich, EM; Van Der Kraak, G; Wade, MG; Willett, CE; Andersen, ME; Borgert, CJ; Coady, KK; Dourson, ML; Fowle, JR; Gray, LE; Lamb, JC; Ortego, LS; Schug, TT; Toole, CM; Zorrilla, LM; Kroner, OL; Patterson, J; Rinckel, LA; Jones, BR. (2014) Endocrine Disruptors Screening Program - Workshop Report is now available via open access publication in ALTEX. Lessons Learned, Challenges, and Opportunities: The U.S. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. ALTEX, 31:63-78, January PDF.



Kirman, CR; Sweeney, LM; Corley, R;Gargas, ML. (2005) Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate. Risk Anal. 25(2):271-84. [Society of Toxicology Risk Assessment Specialty Section Top 10 Applications of Risk Assessment” Award, 2005.]


Kirman, CR; Sweeney, LM;Gargas, ML;Strother, DE; Collins, JJ;Deskin, R. (2008)  Derivation of noncancer reference values for acrylonitrile. Risk.Anal. 28:1375-94.


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York, R; Barnett, J; Girard, M; Mattie, D; Bekkedal, M; Garman, R; Strawson, J. (2005) Refining the Effects Observed in a Developmental Neurobehavioral Study of Ammonium Perchlorate Administered Orally in Drinking Water to Rats. II. Behavioral and Neurodevelopment Effects. In:International Journal of Toxicology, Volume 24, Number 6, Number 6/November-December 2005, pp. 451-467(17).


Zeise L; Hattis, D; Andersen, M; Bailer, J; Bayard, S; Chen, C; Clewell, H; Conony, R; Crump, K; Dunson, D; Finkel, A; Haber, L; Jarabek, AM; Koden, R; Krewski, D; Thomas, D; Thorslund, T; Wassell, JT. (2002) Improving Risk Assessment: Research Opportunities in Dose Response Modeling to Improve Risk Assessment. Hum. Ecol. Risk. Assess. 8(6): 1421-1444.


Zhao, Q; Dourson, M; Gadagbui, B. (2006) A Review of the Reference Dose (RfD) for Chlorpyrifos. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 44: 111-124.


Zhao, Q; Gadagbui, B; Dourson, M. (2005) Lower birth weight as a critical effect of Chlorpyrifos: A comparison of human and animal data. Reg. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 42: 55-63.


Zhao, Q. (2005) Benchmark Dose. In Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Elsevier Inc. 246-248.


Zhao, Q. (2004) Software review of ToxTools for Windows (version 1.0). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 10:609-614.


Zhao, Q; Kan, H; Haber, L; Chen, B; Dourson, M. (2004) Advance in Dose-Response Analysis. Chinese J. Pharmacology and Toxicology. 18:152-160. Chinese edition.


Zhao, Q; Unrine, J; Dourson, ML. (1999) Replacing the Default Values of 10 With Data-Derived Values: A Comparison of Two Different Data Derived Uncertainty Factors for Boron. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 5(5): 973-983.


Framework for Metals Risk Assessment.  2007.  U.S. EPA Risk Assessment Forum.  EPA 120/R-07/001.  Several TERA staff were contributors. Available online here.



Book Chapters


Baskerville-Abraham, I; Willis, A; Gadagbui, B; Haber, LT. (2010) Introduction to Human Health Risk Assessment. In: Application of Toxicogenomics in Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment.  John Wiley and Sons Inc., D.R. Boverhof and B. B. Gollapudi, ed. In press


Doepker, C.L., A. Maier, A. Willis, and S.J. Hermansky.  2012. “Toxicology of Flavors in the Food Industry.” In: Bingham, E., and B. Cohrssen, eds. Patty’s Toxicology, 6th Edition, Volume 5. John Wiley and Sons Inc.


Dourson, M and Haber, L. (2010) Linear Low-Dose Extrapolation. In: Cancer Risk Assessment.  Ching-Hung Hsu and Todd Stedeford, ed. John Wiley &Sons.


Haber, L.T., A. Willis, and P. Nance.  2012. “630. Mode of Action.” In: Wexler, P., ed. Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Submitted.


Haber, L.T., J.E. Strawson, A. Maier, I.M. Baskerville-Abraham, A. Parker, and M.L. Dourson.  2013.  “Noncancer Risk Assessment: Principles and Practice in Environmental and Occupational Settings.” In: Bingham, E., and B. Cohrssen, eds. Patty’s Toxicology, 6th Edition, Volume 5. John Wiley and Sons Inc.


Nance, P; Kroner, O; Haber, L; Dourson, M. (2010) Assessing Risks to Human Health.  In.  Comprehensive Toxicology, 2nd Ed., Charlene A. McQueen, ed.   


Nelson, D; Bratt, G; Anderson, D; Maier, A; Mirer, F. (2010) Occupational and Environmental Risk Assessment.  In: The Occupational Environment: Its Evaluation, Control, and Management Third Ed.  AIHA Press, Fairfax, VA. In Press.


Wexler, P., Hakkinen, P., Nance, P., Parker, A., Patterson, J. 2007. The Information Infrastructure of Toxicology. In: Principles and Methods of Toxicology, 5th ed. CRC Press, Philadelphia, PA.


York, R.G., R.M. Parker, and L.T. Haber.  2013. “Test Methods for Assessing Female Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology.” In: Hayes, A.W., ed. Principles and Methods of Toxicology, 6th Edition, In press.


Zhao, QJ ; Haber, L ; Kohrman-Vincent, M ; Nance, P ; Dourson, M. (2010) Quantitative modeling in noncancer risk assessment. In: Quantitative Modeling in Toxicology, John Wiley, K. Krishnan and M.E. Andersen, ed.  



TERA Reports

TERA Reports


Analysis of OEL recommendations for 1-bromopropane


Acrylonitrile: Inhalation Cancer Risk Assessment. Prepared for the Acrylonitrile Group by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment. Final Document, v.2, February 1997.


Benchmark Concentration Modeling on the Effects of Acute Exposure to Methyl Isothiocyanate (MITC). Prepared for AMVAC by Michael Dourson, Ph.D. and Melissa Kohrman, B.A. of Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA), Bruce Allen, M.S., and William Cain, Sc.M., Ph.D. of University of California. November 1, 2007.


Benchmark concentration modeling on the effects of acute exposure to Methyl Isothiocyanate (MITC). Supplemental. TERA (Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment). September 2008.

Supplemental Report on the Effects of Acute Exposure To Methyl Isothiocyanate (MITC).  Prepared for AMVAC by Michael Dourson, Ph.D. and Melissa Kohrman, B.A. of  Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) and William Cain, Sc.M., Ph.D. of University of California. March 11th, 2008.

Comparative Dietary Risks: Balancing the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption (Document in Adobe Acrobat). Results of a cooperative agreement between TERA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. August 1999.


Development of Reference Doses and Reference Concentrations for Lanthanides. Prepared for The Bureau of Land Management, National Applied Resource Sciences Center by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment. Amended Final, November 1999.


Evolution of Science-Based Uncertainty Factors in Noncancer Risk Assessment. Prepared for Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment. January 31, 1996.

Memo regarding the US EPA memorandum: Response to post-RED MITC toxicology related comments. TERA (Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment). March 2009.

Trimethylbenzene Toxicity Profile. Toxicity profile for US EPA, Office of Water. Critically reviewed and summarized the toxicokinetics, health effects in humans and animals, and the mechanism of toxicity from oral and inhalation exposure to trimethlbenzene. Identified likely critical effects, NOAEL and LOAEL for developing an RfD, and discussed data gaps in deriving the risk values.

Occupational Hazard Profile Documentation. Toxicological summary documents on methyl methacrylate, aluminum, and bentonite for NIOSH. These documents reviewed non-cancer and cancer health effects, as well as data on genotoxicity, reproductive and developmental effects, and toxicokinetics in both humans and animals following acute or chronic exposure.


Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Review Document. Review document prepared for NIOSH. Reviewed and summarized acute toxicity of acrolein, chlorinated camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, carbon disulfide, and carbon monoxide in humans and animals after inhalation exposure. Discussed the likelihood of loss of life or permanent physical impairments, or substantial neurotoxic effects that would impair a worker's ability to escape at IDLH level based on available toxicity information, and critically evaluated the IDLH levels currently used by NIOSH for data quality and propriety.


Health Risk Assessment/Characterization of the Drinking Water Disinfection Byproduct Chloroform. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment. November 1998.


Toxicological Review Of Bromate In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 22, 1998 The final document is now available on IRIS, here.


Toxicological Review Of Phenol In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 2002. The final document is now available on IRIS, here.


Toxicological Review of Soluble Nickel Salts. Prepared for Metal Finishing Association of Southern California, Inc., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Canada by Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment. March 1999. Note that this has been substantially modified since this 1999 draft to reflect more recent data, and in response to EPA and external peer reviewer comments.


Use of benchmark concentration modeling and categorical regression to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to chloropicrin vapor Part I. Technical report. TERA (Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment). August 2005. 


Use of Early Effect Biomarker Data to Enhance Dose-Response Models of Lung Tumors in Rats Exposed to Titanium Dioxide. This report presents a biologically-informed empirical dose-response modeling approach that incorporates biomarker data and lung tumor response in rats exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2).  The models are a series of linked “cause-effect” functions describing the relationships between successive key events, including the ultimate tumor response. Although enhancements to the model are needed before it or similar models can be used for regulatory purposes, the biomarker-based modeling approach provides a more-refined dose-response estimation than that obtained using the traditional approach of dose-response modeling based only on administered dose and clinical endpoint data.



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